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RETRACTED ARTICLE: Efficient identity security authentication method based on improved RLWE algorithm in IoT environment
EURASIP Journal on Information Security volume 2024, Article number: 4 (2024)
Abstract
In recent years, various smart devices based on IoT technology, such as smart homes, healthcare, detection, and logistics systems, have emerged. However, as the number of IoTconnected devices increases, securing the IoT is becoming increasingly challenging. To tackle the increasing security challenges caused by the proliferation of IoT devices, this research proposes an innovative method for IoT identity authentication. The method is based on an improved ringlearning with errors (RLWE) algorithm, which encrypts and decrypts communication between devices and servers effectively using polynomial modular multiplication and modular addition operations. The main innovation of this study is the improvement of the traditional RLWE algorithm, enhancing its efficiency and security. Experimental results demonstrated that, when compared to number theorybased algorithms and elliptic curve cryptography algorithms at a 256bit security level, the enhanced algorithm achieves significant advantages. The improved algorithm encrypted 20 data points with an average runtime of only 3.6 ms, compared to 7.3 ms and 7.7 ms for the other algorithms. Similarly, decrypting the same amount of data had an average runtime of 2.9 ms, as opposed to 7.3 ms and 8 ms for the other algorithms. Additionally, the improved RLWE algorithm had significant advantages in terms of communication and storage costs. Compared to the number theorybased algorithm, the RLWE algorithm reduced communication and storage costs by 3 °C each, and compared to elliptic curve cryptography, it reduced them by 4 °C each. This achievement not only enhances the efficiency of encryption and decryption but also lowers the overall operational costs of the algorithm. The research has made significant strides in improving the security and efficiency of IoT device identity authentication by enhancing the RLWE algorithm. This study provides theoretical and practical foundations for the development and application of related technologies, as well as new solutions for IoT security.
1 Introduction
The development of Internet of Things (IoT) technology has enabled the connection of billions of devices and sensors, providing unprecedented convenience in people’s lives and work [1]. However, as communication and data exchange between these devices increase, security issues in IoT systems have become increasingly prominent. In the realm of identity security verification, it is essential to maintain the confidentiality of IoT devices’ identity and communication. Unauthorized access can result in sensitive information leakage, device intrusion, or network attacks [2]. However, conventional cryptographybased techniques face numerous limitations [3]. On one hand, these methods typically demand substantial computational resources and storage space, of which IoT devices are generally limited. On the other hand, cryptographic approaches are also subject to established attacks on conventional computers. To tackle these concerns, academics have initiated their search for viable techniques to guarantee secure identity verification. The RLWE algorithm, based on LWE, has received significant attention [4]. The enhanced RLWE cryptographic method is a number theorybased encryption algorithm that utilizes the properties of rings in number theory, resulting in greater computational and storage efficiency. This investigation presents a dependable, efficient, and secure technique for verifying identities in IoT settings, addressing security challenges, and contributing towards further IoT enhancement. The research aims to improve the efficiency and security of identity security verification in IoT by exploring how to optimize algorithm design, improve parameter selection, and consider IoTspecific application scenarios to further improve the application of the RLWE algorithm. Additionally, the research will investigate how to integrate the RLWE algorithm with other identity security verification methods to build a more comprehensive security solution to better meet the evolving security needs in the IoT environment.
The research is divided into four parts. The first part summarizes relevant research both domestically and abroad. The second part focuses on the study of improved identity authentication methods using the RLWE algorithm in the context of the IoT. The third part involves performance testing and simulation experiments of the enhanced RLWE algorithm. Finally, the fourth part provides a summary of the research while pointing out its shortcomings.
1.1 Related works
The growth of IoT technology connects an increasing number of devices, enhancing people’s productivity and simultaneously increasing the threat of attacks on user and device data. Consequently, identity security authentication in IoT has garnered researchers’ attention. To address security challenges in application layer protocols for the IoT, scholars, such as Liao B, analyzed various protocols, with a focus on messaging/data sharing and service discovery protocol design and implementation. Detailed research had been conducted on known protocol vulnerabilities and threats, including data from the common vulnerabilities and exposures (CVE) database. To determine the types of security services that can be implemented, the study researched the capabilities and limitations of various IoT devices. Measures such as strong authentication, encrypted communications, secure configuration, continuous monitoring and updating, and other good practices need to be implemented to mitigate threats and attacks on IoT application layer protocols [5]. Sun Y. et al. proposed a gesture recognition and identity security verification algorithm based on the optical flow method of continuous Markov model in order to solve the information security problem of ubiquitous power IoT. The algorithm used the optical flow method to divide the user’s dynamic gesture information, analyzed its gesture characteristics, and established a dynamic gesture model. The researchers tested the algorithm, and the experimental results showed that the authentication method can accurately perform identity security verification [6]. Wang X. et al. proposed a new biometricbased identity security authentication method in order to reduce the risk of attacks on existing biometricbased identity security authentication methods. The method was able to capture the signals released during the user’s blinking process and analyzes the local pixellevel changes caused by the blinking moment as well as the user’s blinking speed, frequency, and other information through visual sensors. The researchers tested the model using a neural biometric dataset, and the experimental results showed that the identity security verification method can accurately and effectively perform identity security verification [7]. To address the security challenges of IoT devices, Nebbione G. and other scholars conducted a thorough analysis of existing literature to identify the security challenges, problems, threats, and attacks related to IoT devices. They also explored the use of mobile computing technologies, such as smartphones, services, policies, and applications, to mitigate these security issues. The study discovered that to enhance the security of IoT devices, solutions on the hardware and software side of mobile computing should include strong authentication, encrypted communications, security policies, and application isolation. It was expected that this comprehensive approach will be further explored and applied in future research to improve the security and privacy protection of IoT devices [8]. Guo J. et al. argued that existing devices capable of using satellite services are at risk of unauthorized intrusion, and that existing protocols for enhancing secure access to devices still suffer from security vulnerabilities. Therefore, the researchers proposed an improved identity security verification method for RLWE. The experimental results indicated that the protocol can effectively enhance the security of the relevant devices and improve the efficiency of identity security authentication of the relevant devices [9]. Faheem M. and other researchers investigated the use of advanced bidirectional communication technologies to improve manufacturing processes. They utilized an optical wireless sensor network (OWSN) that supports the IoT to collect a comprehensive dataset. The dataset included five key metrics: data transmission, latency, congestion, throughput, and packet error rate. Both raw and analytical processing were applied to the collected data to gain insights into the performance of service systems within the context of Industry 4.0 in electronic manufacturing [10]. Faheem M. and their research team developed a distributed routing protocol named CARP, which includes a collaborative channel allocation mechanism and a multihop routing strategy. Extensive simulation experiments were conducted using EstiNet 9.0 to evaluate the performance of the CARP protocol. The protocol was compared to existing routing schemes used in cooperative relay sensor networks (CRSNs) applications to validate its performance and advantages [11]. To address the challenge of providing costeffective and highquality electricity in the volatile global markets of SGI 4.0, Faheem M. and their team introduced a set of algorithms called CARP. CARP includes channel detection, channel allocation, and packet forwarding. The team meticulously compared CARP to existing solutions GRPL and EQSHC to assess its performance and effectiveness in the context of smart grids. According to the experimental results, CARP demonstrated superior performance and effectiveness in smart grid applications. This offered the potential to improve monitoring and realtime control of electricity generation and distribution processes [12]. A comparison of related studies is shown in Table 1.
In essence, while there exists an abundance of research on identity security authentication, there is insufficient research on the methods of identity security authentication tailored to IoT. Additionally, numerous loopholes are present within the current identity security authentication methods used for IoT. As a result, this study puts forth an identity security authentication method based on the RLWE algorithm for IoT. The approach offers a suitable research pathway for confirming identity security in the context of the IoT.
2 Improved RLWE algorithm for authentication in the context of IoT
With the development of IoT technology, its application fields are becoming more and more extensive, such as smart power, smart home, smart traffic, industrial monitoring, smart power, and ehealth. IoT technology brings a series of security problems while facilitating the production and life of human beings and improving the degree of convenience. In order to better ensure the security of IoT system and improve the efficiency of IoT identity security verification, the study proposes an improved identity security verification method with RLWE algorithm.
2.1 Analysis on IoT security issues
IoT technology provides devicetodevice and humantodevice connectivity for heterogeneous types of devices to help fulfil the human need for devices that operate applications for different functions such as location, monitoring, and identification [13, 14]. But a large number of connected heterogeneous devices generates a large amount of data, which also creates a large number of security issues. This research analyzes the security issues for the threetier architecture of IoT. The threetier architecture of IoT is shown in Fig. 1.
In Fig. 1, the lowest layer of the IoT threelayer architecture is the perception layer. The main function of the sensing layer is to collect information about the outside world using technologies such as cameras and GPS and transmit this data to the network layer. The middle layer is the network layer. The main function of this layer is to transmit the data from the perception layer to the application layer through different network technologies like 4G and 5G. The application layer is directly customer facing. Customers are able to operate the devices through the application layer to meet their needs. Each layer in the threelayer architecture of IoT may face different types of attacks. The IoT security architecture is shown in Fig. 2.
Figure 2 illustrates that security measures in an IoT system must cover the perception layer, network layer, and application layer to address various security threats [15]. The perception layer faces threats such as node vulnerability to capture, blocking service attacks, blocking sleep attacks, and sybil attacks. To address these threats, it is essential to encrypt data and securely verify the identity of each node [16]. At the network layer, threats such as maninthemiddle attacks, denialofservice attacks, and eavesdropping attacks can improve security through identity security verification, key negotiation, and intrusion detection systems. Regarding the application layer, it is important to address information availability issues that may arise due to a high number of unauthorized users and the need to integrate authentication methods across different devices. Therefore, it is necessary to implement identity security verification and security management plans for resource and information management. Overall, ensuring comprehensive security measures at each layer is crucial for the security of IoT systems. Identity security verification plays a core role in ensuring the legality of communications and data security.
2.2 Identity security verification method based on improved RLWE algorithm
The RLWE algorithm is a latticebased lightweight public key cryptography algorithm [17]. The RLWE problem is built on a polynomial ring R. The RLWE problem is based on a polynomial ring A. The RLWE problem is divided into two aspects; the first aspect is the searching RLWE problem, which refers to the problem where m polynomial \(\left({a}_{i},{b}_{i}\right)\) is given and a request is made to solve for the secret element \(\leftarrow {R}_{q}\). The second aspect is the deterministic RLWE problem. This problem asks to discriminate two sets. The first set is the set consisting of m polynomials \(\left({a}_{i},{b}_{i}\right)\), and the polynomials within the set are all obtained randomly and uniformly from the \({R}_{q}\times {R}_{q}\) matrix. The second set is also a set of m polynomials \(\left({a}_{i},{b}_{i}\right)\), and the polynomials within the set are obtained from the \({R}_{q}\times {R}_{q}\) matrix where \({a}_{i}\leftarrow {R}_{q}\), noise \({e}_{i}\leftarrow \chi\), and \({b}_{i}={a}_{i}\cdot s+{e}_{i}\). The RLWE algorithm consists of three main steps: key generation, encryption, and decryption. The key generation is done by selecting the polynomial \({r}_{1}, {r}_{2}\leftarrow {\chi }_{\sigma }\) from the error distribution \({\chi }_{\sigma }\) and then calculating the device public key, which is shown in Eq. (1).
In Eq. (1), \({r}_{2}\) denotes the private key. Encryption means selecting the polynomial \({{e}_{1}, {e}_{2}, {e}_{3}\leftarrow \chi }_{\sigma }\) from the error distribution \({\chi }_{\sigma }\), and the plaintext message is \(m\in {\left\{\mathrm{0,1}\right\}}^{n}\). The ciphertext expression is shown in Eq. (2).
In Eq. (2), the specific equation for \({c}_{1}\) and \({c}_{2}\) is shown in Eq. (3).
In Eq. (3), \({e}_{1}\), \({e}_{2}\), and \({e}_{3}\) denote the polynomials chosen from the error distribution \({\chi }_{\sigma }\), respectively. This step of decryption requires the computation of the ciphertext \({m}{\prime}\), and it is necessary to recover the plaintext m. The decryption equation and the recovery equation are shown in Eq. (4).
In Eq. (4), \({c}_{1}\) and \({c}_{2}\) denote the minimum and maximum values of the ranges that make up the ciphertext, respectively, and \({r}_{2}\) denotes the private key of the ciphertext. The public key length of the current RLWE algorithm is too long, which leads to low computational efficiency at runtime for lowend processors [18]. The research aims to improve identity security by shortening public key length while maintaining the same level of security. The improved method for verifying identity security in the RLWE algorithm focuses on enhancing the trusted authorization center [19]. The current trusted authorization centers are too random in selecting parameters, which may lead to inaccurate authentication results. The study proposes a method to help authorization centers to select appropriate parameters to improve the authentication accuracy. The IoT identity security verification model is shown in Fig. 3.
In Fig. 3, the server and the IoT device need to go to the trusted authorization center for registration and authorization respectively before authentication. The trusted security center has two functions: the first one is to select the secure authorization center parameters and set them as public parameters, and the second one is to provide the registration function for the IoT devices and servers [20]. The method for verifying IoT identity security and improving the RLWE algorithm consists of three main parts. The first part establishes security guarantees for system initialization. The trusted authorization center (TAC) selects appropriate parameters and is responsible for generating public and private keys [21, 22]. The second part is device registration, and the third part is login authentication. In the first part, the improved trusted authorization center needs to select suitable parameters as the public parameters of the system. The methodology is as follows. The first step is to determine the maximum number of polynomials in the encryption method. The determination method is shown in Eq. (5).
In Eq. (5), \(n\) denotes the security parameter, the larger the value of \(n\), the better, provided that the algorithm’s running time and security remain unchanged. The second step is to determine the large prime \(q\). The large prime \(q\) needs to satisfy \(2n\left\left(q1\right)\right.\). The third step needs to set an \(n\) subpolynomial \(\left(x\right)={x}^{n}+1\in {Z}_{q}\left[x\right]\). The fourth step is to determine the error distribution \(\chi ={D}_{{Z}^{n},r},\ge \omega \left(\sqrt{{\text{log}}n}\right)\). Uniformly, randomly generated polynomial \(a\in {R}_{q}\) in the initialization phase obeys the error distribution \(\chi\). The server \(Y\) sends the ID belonging to itself to the trusted authorization center and subsequently generates the polynomial \({r}_{Y1}\in {R}_{q}, {r}_{S2}\in {R}_{q}\) randomly for the server and obeys the error distribution \(\chi\) and then calculates the server public key. The server public key computation equation is shown in Eq. (6).
In Eq. (6), \({r}_{Y1}\) and \({r}_{Y1}\) both denote the server private key. The error distribution of the RLWE algorithm is difficult to predict. This ensures that even in the face of complex attacks, attackers cannot extract meaningful data from the exchanged information. As a result, communication integrity and confidentiality are ensured. The device registration phase is mainly for IoT devices. When IoT device O wants to register, it needs to send its own ID to the trusted authorization center, and then the trusted authorization center selects for it the uniformly randomly generated polynomial \({r}_{o1}\in {R}_{q}, {r}_{o2}\in {R}_{q}\), both polynomials obeying the error distribution \(\chi\). Also, calculate the \({p}_{oi}={r}_{{oi}_{1}}a\cdot {r}_{{oi}_{2}}\in {R}_{q}\), the public key of this device is \(\left(a, {p}_{{h}_{i}}\right)\), and the private key is \({r}_{{hi}_{2}}\). After determining the public and private keys, send the message over a secure channel to the device ready to register O. There are four steps in the login authentication phase. The first step is to select four randomly generated polynomials \({e}_{1}, {e}_{2}, {e}_{3}, {e}_{4}\in {R}_{q}\), which is calculated by the device O ready to log in with the public key of the server, as shown in Eq. (7).
In Eq. (7), \({e}_{1}, {e}_{2}, {e}_{3}, {e}_{4}\) denotes the randomly generated polynomial, \({p}_{Y}\) denotes the server public key, \({p}_{oi}\) denotes the device public key, and \(H\left(.\right)\) denotes the hash function. After calculating the value of \({E}_{1}, {E}_{2}, {E}_{3}\), the result is sent to the server Y over a secure channel. The second step is to decrypt the \({E}_{1}, {E}_{2}, {E}_{3}\). The decryption method is that the server uses its own private key to decrypt, and after decryption, it gets \({p}_{yi}\), \({e}_{4}\), and T. The server also needs to calculate a value of \({T}{\prime}\). The server compares the calculated \({T}{\prime}\) with the T, and if the two are not equal, the operation request will be prohibited, and the equation for calculating \({T}{\prime}\) is shown in Eq. (8).
In Eq. (8), \({e}_{4}\) is obtained by the server decryption. If the calculated \({T}{\prime}\) is equal to T, then the server generates four polynomials \({e}_{5}, {e}_{6}, {e}_{7}, {e}_{8}\in {R}_{q}\) obeying the error distribution and calculates the public key 4 and public key 5. The specific equation is shown in Eq. (9).
In Eq. (9), \({e}_{5}, {e}_{6}, {e}_{7}, {e}_{8}\) denotes a randomly generated polynomial. Subsequently, the calculated \({E}_{4}, {E}_{5}\) is sent over a secure channel to the device Oi. The third step is that the device Oi decrypts the received \({E}_{4}, {E}_{5}\) to get \({E}_{8}\) and \({V}_{1}\). Subsequently, the device Oi needs to calculate the value of \({V}_{1}{\prime}\). If the values of \({V}_{1}{\prime}\) and \({V}_{1}\) are unequal, the operation request is prohibited. If they are equal, then it will calculate the \({V}_{2}\) and the public key \({E}_{6}\). The specific equation is shown in Eq. (10).
In Eq. (10), \({e}_{1}, {e}_{2}, {e}_{3}, {e}_{4}\) denotes a randomly generated polynomial. After the computation is completed, the result is sent to the server over a secure channel. The fourth step is that the server decrypts the received message to get \({V}_{2}\) and calculates \({V}_{2}{\prime}\); the equation for \({V}_{2}{\prime}\) is shown in Eq. (11).
In Eq. (11), \({e}_{4}, {e}_{8}\) is a randomly generated polynomial. If the value of \({V}_{2}{\prime}\) is not equal to \({V}_{2}\), this operation request will be prohibited; if they are equal, it means that the device identity is authenticated by the server, and finally, the key will be calculated, and the equation for the key is shown in Eq. (12).
In Eq. 16, \({H}_{2}\) denotes the hash function. The IoT identity security verification process based on the improved RLWE algorithm is shown in Fig. 4.
In Fig. 4, first four polynomials are generated randomly, and then the public key is computed, and then the public key is sent over a secure channel to the server which decrypts the public key. If the decrypted value is not equal to the value stored internally by the server, the operation request is disabled, and if it is equal, four polynomials are generated again. The public key is then computed and sent over a secure channel to the server, which decrypts the public key. If the decrypted value is not equal to the value stored in the server, the request is disabled, and if it is equal, the obtained information is sent to the server, which decrypts it again. If the decrypted value is not equal to the value stored inside the server, the operation request is disabled, and if it is equal, the key is calculated [23].
Figure 4 shows that the public key is used for encrypting data, which can only be decrypted with the corresponding private key. A secure channel is a communication method that protects data transmission from interception or tampering by external forces. Decryption is the process of converting encrypted data back to its original format. The data or key prestored on the server is used to verify the legitimacy of the operation request. During the initial stage, the system generates four polynomials to calculate the public key. The public key is sent to the server through a secure channel. Upon receiving the public key, the server decrypts it and compares the result with the stored value. If the comparison is inconsistent, the system rejects the operation request. If consistent, the system generates a new polynomial and repeats the process. If all verifications pass, the system calculates the final key and proceeds with subsequent operations.
Figure 2 shows that security measures in an IoT system must cover the perception layer, network layer, and application layer to address various security threats [15]. The perception layer faces threats such as node vulnerability to capture, blocking service attacks, blocking sleep attacks, and sybil attacks. To address these threats, it is essential to encrypt data and securely verify the identity of each node [16]. At the network layer, security can be improved through identity verification, key negotiation, and intrusion detection systems to prevent threats such as maninthemiddle attacks, denialofservice attacks, and eavesdropping attacks. In terms of the application layer, it is crucial to address potential information availability issues that may arise due to a large number of unauthorized users. Additionally, it is important to integrate authentication methods across different devices. Therefore, it is necessary to implement identity verification and security management plans for resource and information management. Ensuring comprehensive security measures at each layer is crucial for the security of IoT systems. Identity verification plays a core role in ensuring the legality of communications and data security. The RLWE algorithm relies on certain security and trust assumptions. These include the resistance of the encryption algorithm based on the RLWE problem to powerful quantum computer attacks, the trustworthiness of core devices such as gateways or controllers, and the use of SSL/TLS security protocols for interdevice communication. Additionally, networklevel security measures such as firewalls and intrusion detection systems should be deployed. It is important to ensure that all technical terms are explained when first used and to maintain a formal register throughout the text. The system can update its software and security protocols regularly to address new threats and challenges. Additionally, key equipment is physically secure.
3 Performance tests and simulation experiments of RLWE algorithm
The performance tests conducted in this study on the RLWE algorithm were run on Windows 11 Professional, 13th Gen Intel(R) Core (TM) i513400F 2.50 GHz 32.0GB RAM. The study compares the performance of RLWE algorithm, NTRU algorithm, and ECC algorithm for IoT identity security authentication. The number theory library used for the study is NTL number theory library. In this section, IRLWE in the legends and tables refer to the improved RLWE algorithm. The following key parameters are usually involved when testing the RLWE algorithm, The value of parameter ring is \(\left[\chi \right]/\left({\chi }^{1024}+1\right)\), modulus q = 12289, and error distribution \(\sigma =3.19\).
The convergence performance of the three algorithms with the number of iterations is shown in Fig. 5.
At iteration 253, the improved RLWE algorithm begins to converge and maintains stable convergence performance. The NTRU algorithm begins to converge at iteration 372, but its convergence performance fluctuates slightly as the number of iterations increases. When the number of iterations reaches 477, the ECC algorithm begins to converge. However, as the number of iterations increases, its convergence performance fluctuates significantly. The convergence rate of the improved RLWE algorithm is 32% faster than the NTRU algorithm and 47% faster than the ECC algorithm. This shows that the convergence performance of the improved RLWE algorithm is significantly higher than that of the NTRU algorithm and the ECC algorithm. The comparison results of the accuracy of the three algorithms with the number of samples are shown in Fig. 6.
In Fig. 6, Fig. 6a represents the comparison of the accuracy of different algorithms at 128bit security level. The RLWE algorithm achieves a maximum accuracy of 95.6% with a sample size of 65, while the NTRU algorithm achieves a maximum accuracy of 90.1% with a sample size of 52. The ECC algorithm achieves a maximum accuracy of 83.2% with a sample size of 44. Figure 6b shows a comparison of the accuracy of different algorithms at the 256bit security level. The maximum accuracy for the improved RLWE algorithm is 90.7% with 56 samples, while the NTRU algorithm reaches a maximum accuracy of 83.2% with 45 samples. The ECC algorithm achieves a maximum accuracy of 71.5% with 37 samples. The comparison results of the AUC values of the three algorithms are plotted in Fig. 7.
In Fig. 7, Fig. 7a represents the results of comparison of AUC values for different algorithms at 128bit security level. The AUC values of the improved RLWE algorithm, the NTRU algorithm, and the ECC algorithm are 0.968, 0.822, and 0.681, respectively. It can be seen that the AUC value of the improved RLWE algorithm is larger than that of the NTRI algorithm and the ECC algorithm, which indicates that the improved RLWE algorithm performs the best at the 128bit security level. Fig. 7b represents the results of comparison of AUC values for different algorithms at 256bit security level. The AUC values of the improved RLWE algorithm, the NTRU algorithm, and the ECC algorithm are 0.887, 0.721, and 0.556, respectively. It can be seen that the AUC value of the improved RLWE algorithm is larger than that of the NTRI algorithm and the ECC algorithm, which indicates that the improved RLWE algorithm still outperforms the other two algorithms at the 256bit security level. The improved RLWE algorithm prioritizes security in its design, enhancing its resistance to various attacks and improving the AUC value. Additionally, the algorithm’s relatively short key length allows for better performance at the same security level. Lastly, the algorithm is designed to withstand quantum computing attacks, ensuring excellent performance at high security levels. In order to observe the practical application effect of the three algorithms, the study uses the tommath number theory library and plots the PR curves of the three algorithms, and the results are shown in Fig. 8.
In Fig. 8, Fig. 8a represents the PR curves of different algorithms at 128bit security level. The curve of the improved RLWE algorithm wraps the curves of the NTRU algorithm and the ECC algorithm completely, so the improved RLWE algorithm outperforms the other two algorithms, while the curves of the NTRU algorithm and the ECC algorithm have an intersection point, which makes it impossible to judge the performance difference between them. Fig. 8b represents the PR curves of different algorithms at 256bit security level. The improved RLWE algorithm outperforms the NTRU and ECC algorithms at both 128bit and 256bit security levels. This is due to the curves of the improved RLWE algorithm completely wrapping the curves of the other two algorithms. The running time required by the three algorithms to encrypt the data in NTL number theory library for different security levels is shown in Fig. 9.
In Fig. 9, Fig. 9a represents the running time required by different algorithms to encrypt data with 128bit security level. The average time required for 20 encryptions by the improved RLWE algorithm, NTRU, and NTRU is 3.2 ms, 6 ms, and 6.8 ms respectively. Figure 9b represents the running time required by different algorithms for encryption of data with 256bit security level. The average time required for 20 encryptions by the improved RLWE algorithm, NTRU, and NTRU is 3.6 ms, 7.3 ms, and 7.7 ms, respectively. The runtime required for 20 encryptions by the three algorithms for different security levels of data in the NTL number theory library is significantly less than that required by the other two algorithms for the improved RLWE algorithm. The improved RLWE algorithm may be more suitable for the IoT environment due to its hardware resource friendliness and support for low latency. Additionally, different algorithms have varying mathematical foundations and operational complexities, with the RLWE algorithm proving more effective in certain cases. In addition, encryption at varying security levels typically requires keys of different lengths. The improved RLWE algorithm utilizes shorter keys at the 128bit security level, resulting in faster encryption. The running time required by the three algorithms to decrypt the data for different security levels in NTL number theory library is shown in Fig. 10.
In Fig. 10, Fig. 10a represents the running time required by different algorithms to decrypt the data with 128bit security level. The average time required for the improved RLWE algorithm, NTRU, and ECC to perform 20 decryptions is 2.1 ms, 5.9 ms, and 6.2 ms, respectively. In Fig. 10b, (b) represents the runtime required by different algorithms to decrypt the data with 256bit security level. The average time required for 20 decryptions by the improved RLWE algorithm, NTRU, and ECC is 2.9 ms, 7.3 ms, and 8 ms, respectively. When the three algorithms are used to decrypt data with different security levels for 20 decryptions in the NTL number theory library, the improved RLWE algorithm requires significantly less runtime than the other two algorithms. The computational overheads of the different algorithms are shown in Table 2.
In Table 2, TE represents the encryption time of each algorithm, and TD represents the decryption time corresponding to each algorithm. From Table 1, the computational overhead of the improved RLWE algorithm is much less than that of the NTRU algorithm and the ECC algorithm at both the device side and the server side. The study also compares the communication cost and storage cost of the different algorithms, and the comparison results are shown in Table 3.
In Table 3, C denotes the total expenses associated with hash function values, the improved RLWE algorithm, the NTRU algorithm, the ECC algorithm, and so on. From Table 2, the communication cost of the enhanced RLWE algorithm is 3C lower than that of the NTRU algorithm and 4C lower than that of the ECC algorithm. Additionally, the storage cost of the upgraded RLWE algorithm is 3C lower than that of the NTRU algorithm and 4C lower than that of the ECC algorithm. Both the communication and storage expenses of the improved RLWE algorithm are substantially lower than the other two algorithms. The study utilized smart home devices to construct a testing environment. The attacker attempted to intercept communication between the device and server in order to decrypt transmitted data and insert forged information.
Figure 11 shows that the system response time was maintained at 20 ms before the attack occurred (at time 0 min), indicating efficient operation under normal conditions. However, when the simulated attack began at 1 min, the system response time increased significantly to 50 ms. This increase reflects the additional processing time required for the system to detect the attack and initiate security algorithms. Over time, the system adapts to the attack, and response time decreases until it stabilizes at around 30 ms. This demonstrates the system’s ability to effectively adjust its processing mechanisms to handle ongoing security threats while maintaining optimal performance. At the start of the attack, the interception success rate rapidly increased from 0%, indicating the system’s ability to quickly identify and activate defense mechanisms. Throughout the testing period, the interception success rate continued to increase until it reached 100% at 5 min, demonstrating the system’s effectiveness in identifying and blocking attacks while gradually improving its security performance.
4 Conclusion
To address the issue of current vulnerable identity security authentication methods for IoT that are susceptible to various forms of attacks, a proposed method is based on the improved RLWE algorithm for identity security authentication. During the performance test, it was found that the improved RLWE algorithm converged 32% faster as compared to the NTRU algorithm and 47% faster compared to the ECC algorithm. At a security level of 128 bits, the improved RLWE algorithm achieved an accuracy of up to 95.6%. Conversely, the NTRU algorithm achieved an accuracy of up to 90.1%, and the ECC algorithm reached up to 83.2% accuracy. However, the precision of all three algorithms decreased continuously after achieving the maximum value. Through simulation experiments, the average runtime for 20 data encryptions with a security level of 128 bit by the enhanced RLWE, NTRU, and ECC was 3.2 ms, 6 ms, and 6.8 ms, respectively. The mean duration necessary for 20 decryption procedures of 128bit protected data using the enhanced RLWE, NTRU, and ECC is 2.1 ms, 5.9 ms, and 6.2 ms, accordingly. Based on the tests and simulations, the security verification method of the upgraded RLWE approach presented in this study surpassed that of its NTRU and ECC counterparts. The proposed algorithm can enhance the security of IoT devices by preventing unauthorized access and data leakage while also providing resistance to quantum computing attacks. The RLWE algorithm proposed in the study is optimal for IoT applications that demand high security and resistance to quantum computing attacks. It can guarantee secure communication between devices, preserve data privacy and integrity, and defend against various cyber threats. The research has identified several areas for improvement. Firstly, due to limited IoT device resources, algorithms need to be optimized to adapt to these restrictions. Secondly, actual deployment needs to consider complex key management and device registration. Thirdly, the communication environment is unstable, and device heterogeneity may lead to fluctuations in algorithm performance. Fourthly, the algorithm is vulnerable to sidechannel attacks and maninthemiddle attacks. Finally, key management and scalability issues need to be handled carefully in largescale IoT. In future research, multifactor authentication methods can be explored to enhance the security of IoT devices. In addition to keys, other factors such as biometrics and physical hardware tokens can be considered.
Availability of data and materials
The data used to support the findings of the research are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.
Change history
10 May 2024
This article has been retracted. Please see the Retraction Notice for more detail: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13635024001627
Abbreviations
 IoT:

Internet of Things
 RLWE:

RLWE algorithm
 NTRU:

NTRU algorithm
 ECC:

ECC algorithm
References
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Yang, L. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Efficient identity security authentication method based on improved RLWE algorithm in IoT environment. EURASIP J. on Info. Security 2024, 4 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13635024001538
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13635024001538