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  • Research Article
  • Open Access

Audio Watermarking through Deterministic plus Stochastic Signal Decomposition

EURASIP Journal on Information Security20072007:075961

  • Received: 1 May 2007
  • Accepted: 1 October 2007
  • Published:


This paper describes an audio watermarking scheme based on sinusoidal signal modeling. To embed a watermark in an original signal (referred to as a cover signal hereafter), the following steps are taken. (a) A short-time Fourier transform is applied to the cover signal. (b) Prominent spectral peaks are identified and removed. (c) Their frequencies are subjected to quantization index modulation. (d) Quantized spectral peaks are added back to the spectrum. (e) Inverse Fourier transform and overlap-adding produce a watermarked signal. To decode the watermark, frequencies of prominent spectral peaks are estimated by quadratic interpolation on the magnitude spectrum. Afterwards, a maximum-likelihood procedure determines the binary value embedded in each frame. Results of testing against lossy compression, low- and highpass filtering, reverberation, and stereo-to-mono reduction are reported. A Hamming code is adopted to reduce the bit error rate (BER), and ways to improve sound quality are suggested as future research directions.


  • Index Modulation
  • Inverse Fourier Transform
  • Cover Signal
  • Watermark Scheme
  • Sinusoidal Signal


Authors’ Affiliations

Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA), Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94305, USA
Boys Town National Research Hospital, 555 North 30th Street, Omaha, NE 68131, USA


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© Liu and Smith 2007

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.