Skip to content


  • Research Article
  • Open Access

Transmission Error and Compression Robustness of 2D Chaotic Map Image Encryption Schemes

EURASIP Journal on Information Security20072007:048179

  • Received: 30 March 2007
  • Accepted: 3 September 2007
  • Published:


This paper analyzes the robustness properties of 2D chaotic map image encryption schemes. We investigate the behavior of such block ciphers under different channel error types and find the transmission error robustness to be highly dependent on on the type of error occurring and to be very different as compared to the effects when using traditional block ciphers like AES. Additionally, chaotic-mixing-based encryption schemes are shown to be robust to lossy compression as long as the security requirements are not too high. This property facilitates the application of these ciphers in scenarios where lossy compression is applied to encrypted material, which is impossible in case traditional ciphers should be employed. If high security is required chaotic mixing loses its robustness to transmission errors and compression, still the lower computational demand may be an argument in favor of chaotic mixing as compared to traditional ciphers when visual data is to be encrypted.


  • Encryption Scheme
  • Error Type
  • Security Requirement
  • Data Security
  • Block Cipher


Authors’ Affiliations

Department of Computer Sciences, Salzburg University, Jakob-Haringerstr. 2, Salzburg, 5020, Austria


  1. Methods for subjective determination of transmission quality 1996. ITU-R Recommendation P.80Google Scholar
  2. Methodology for the subjective assessment of the quality of television pictures 2002. ITU-R Recommendation BT.500-1Google Scholar
  3. Avcibas I, Sankur B, Sayood K: Statistical evaluation of image quality measures. Journal of Electronic Imaging 2002, 11(2):206-223. 10.1117/1.1455011View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen G, Mao Y, Chui CK: A symmetric image encryption scheme based on 3D chaotic cat maps. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004, 21(3):749-761. 10.1016/j.chaos.2003.12.022MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  5. Cho S-G, Bojkovic Z, Milovanovic D, Lee J, Hwang J-J: Image quality evaluation: Jpeg 2000 versus intraonly h.264/avc high profile. Facta Universitatis, Nis, Series: Electronics and Energetics 2007, 20(1):71-83. 10.2298/FUEE0701071CView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  6. Daemen J, Rijmen V: The Design of Rijndael: AES—The Advanced Encryption Standard. Springer, New York, NY, USA; 2002.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  7. Eskicioglu AM: Quality measurement for monochrome compressed images in the past 25 years. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP '00), June 2000, Istanbul, Turkey 4: 1907-1910.Google Scholar
  8. Fridrich J: Symmetric ciphers based on two-dimensional chaotic maps. International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos in Applied Sciences and Engineering 1998, 8(6):1259-1284. 10.1142/S021812749800098XMATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  9. Furht B, Kirovski D (Eds): Multimedia Security Handbook. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA; 2005.Google Scholar
  10. Gschwandtner M, Uhl A, Wild P: Compression of encrypted visual data. In Proceedings of the 10th IFIP International Conference on Communications and Multimedia Security (CMS '06), October 2006, Crete, Greece, Lecture Notes on Computer Science. Volume 4237. Edited by: Leitold H, Markatos E. Springer; 141-150.Google Scholar
  11. Mao Y, Wu M: Security evaluation for communication-friendly encryption of multimedia. Proceedings of International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP '04), October 2004, Singapore 1: 569-572.Google Scholar
  12. Markovski V, Xue F, Trajković L: Simulation and analysis of packet loss in user datagram protocol transfers. Journal of Supercomputing 2001, 20(2):175-196. 10.1023/A:1011134903609MATHView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  13. Nguyen GT, Katy RH, Noble B, Satyanaryanan M: Trace-based approach for modeling wireless channel behavior. Proceedings of the Winter Simulation Conference (WSC '96), December 1996, Coronado, Calif, USA 597-604.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  14. Norcen R, Uhl A: Encryption of wavelet-coded imagery using random permutations. Proceedings of International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP '04), October 2004, Singapore 2: 3431-3434.Google Scholar
  15. Pennebaker WB, Mitchell JL: JPEG—Still Image Compression Standard. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, NY, USA; 1993.Google Scholar
  16. Reisecker M, Uhl A: Wavelet-packet subband structures in the evolution of the JPEG 2000 standard. Proceedings of the 6th Nordic Signal Processing Symposium (NORSIG '04), June 2004, Espoo, Finland 46: 97-100.Google Scholar
  17. Scharinger J: Fast encryption of image data using chaotic Kolmogorov flows. Journal of Electronic Imaging 1998, 7(2):318-325. 10.1117/1.482647View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  18. Taubman D, Marcellin MW: JPEG2000—Image Compression Fundamentals, Standards and Practice. Kluwer Academic, Boston, Mass, USA; 2002.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  19. Tosun AS, Feng W: On error preserving encryption algorithms for wireless video transmission. Proceedings of the ACM International Multimedia Conference and Exhibition, September-October 2001, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (4):302-308.Google Scholar
  20. Uhl A, Pommer A: Image and Video Encryption. From Digital Rights Management to Secured Personal Communication, Advances in Information Security. Volume 15. Springer, New York, NY, USA; 2005.Google Scholar
  21. Wen JG, Severa M, Zeng W, Luttrell MH, Jin W: A format-compliant configurable encryption framework for access control of video. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 2002, 12(6):545-557. 10.1109/TCSVT.2002.800321View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  22. Zeng W, Wen J, Severa M: Fast self-synchronous content scrambling by spatially shuffling codewords of compressed bitstreams. Proceedings of International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP '02), September 2002, Rochester, NY, USA 3: 169-172.Google Scholar
  23. Zeng W, Lei S: Efficient frequency domain selective scrambling of digital video. IEEE Transactions on Multimedia 2003, 5(1):118-129. 10.1109/TMM.2003.808817View ArticleGoogle Scholar


© Gschwandtner et al. 2007

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.