- Research Article
- Open Access
Transmission Error and Compression Robustness of 2D Chaotic Map Image Encryption Schemes
EURASIP Journal on Information Security volume 2007, Article number: 048179 (2007)
This paper analyzes the robustness properties of 2D chaotic map image encryption schemes. We investigate the behavior of such block ciphers under different channel error types and find the transmission error robustness to be highly dependent on on the type of error occurring and to be very different as compared to the effects when using traditional block ciphers like AES. Additionally, chaotic-mixing-based encryption schemes are shown to be robust to lossy compression as long as the security requirements are not too high. This property facilitates the application of these ciphers in scenarios where lossy compression is applied to encrypted material, which is impossible in case traditional ciphers should be employed. If high security is required chaotic mixing loses its robustness to transmission errors and compression, still the lower computational demand may be an argument in favor of chaotic mixing as compared to traditional ciphers when visual data is to be encrypted.
Methods for subjective determination of transmission quality 1996. ITU-R Recommendation P.80
Methodology for the subjective assessment of the quality of television pictures 2002. ITU-R Recommendation BT.500-1
Avcibas I, Sankur B, Sayood K: Statistical evaluation of image quality measures. Journal of Electronic Imaging 2002, 11(2):206-223. 10.1117/1.1455011
Chen G, Mao Y, Chui CK: A symmetric image encryption scheme based on 3D chaotic cat maps. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004, 21(3):749-761. 10.1016/j.chaos.2003.12.022
Cho S-G, Bojkovic Z, Milovanovic D, Lee J, Hwang J-J: Image quality evaluation: Jpeg 2000 versus intraonly h.264/avc high profile. Facta Universitatis, Nis, Series: Electronics and Energetics 2007, 20(1):71-83. 10.2298/FUEE0701071C
Daemen J, Rijmen V: The Design of Rijndael: AES—The Advanced Encryption Standard. Springer, New York, NY, USA; 2002.
Eskicioglu AM: Quality measurement for monochrome compressed images in the past 25 years. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP '00), June 2000, Istanbul, Turkey 4: 1907-1910.
Fridrich J: Symmetric ciphers based on two-dimensional chaotic maps. International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos in Applied Sciences and Engineering 1998, 8(6):1259-1284. 10.1142/S021812749800098X
Furht B, Kirovski D (Eds): Multimedia Security Handbook. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA; 2005.
Gschwandtner M, Uhl A, Wild P: Compression of encrypted visual data. In Proceedings of the 10th IFIP International Conference on Communications and Multimedia Security (CMS '06), October 2006, Crete, Greece, Lecture Notes on Computer Science. Volume 4237. Edited by: Leitold H, Markatos E. Springer; 141-150.
Mao Y, Wu M: Security evaluation for communication-friendly encryption of multimedia. Proceedings of International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP '04), October 2004, Singapore 1: 569-572.
Markovski V, Xue F, Trajković L: Simulation and analysis of packet loss in user datagram protocol transfers. Journal of Supercomputing 2001, 20(2):175-196. 10.1023/A:1011134903609
Nguyen GT, Katy RH, Noble B, Satyanaryanan M: Trace-based approach for modeling wireless channel behavior. Proceedings of the Winter Simulation Conference (WSC '96), December 1996, Coronado, Calif, USA 597-604.
Norcen R, Uhl A: Encryption of wavelet-coded imagery using random permutations. Proceedings of International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP '04), October 2004, Singapore 2: 3431-3434.
Pennebaker WB, Mitchell JL: JPEG—Still Image Compression Standard. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, NY, USA; 1993.
Reisecker M, Uhl A: Wavelet-packet subband structures in the evolution of the JPEG 2000 standard. Proceedings of the 6th Nordic Signal Processing Symposium (NORSIG '04), June 2004, Espoo, Finland 46: 97-100.
Scharinger J: Fast encryption of image data using chaotic Kolmogorov flows. Journal of Electronic Imaging 1998, 7(2):318-325. 10.1117/1.482647
Taubman D, Marcellin MW: JPEG2000—Image Compression Fundamentals, Standards and Practice. Kluwer Academic, Boston, Mass, USA; 2002.
Tosun AS, Feng W: On error preserving encryption algorithms for wireless video transmission. Proceedings of the ACM International Multimedia Conference and Exhibition, September-October 2001, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (4):302-308.
Uhl A, Pommer A: Image and Video Encryption. From Digital Rights Management to Secured Personal Communication, Advances in Information Security. Volume 15. Springer, New York, NY, USA; 2005.
Wen JG, Severa M, Zeng W, Luttrell MH, Jin W: A format-compliant configurable encryption framework for access control of video. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 2002, 12(6):545-557. 10.1109/TCSVT.2002.800321
Zeng W, Wen J, Severa M: Fast self-synchronous content scrambling by spatially shuffling codewords of compressed bitstreams. Proceedings of International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP '02), September 2002, Rochester, NY, USA 3: 169-172.
Zeng W, Lei S: Efficient frequency domain selective scrambling of digital video. IEEE Transactions on Multimedia 2003, 5(1):118-129. 10.1109/TMM.2003.808817
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
About this article
Cite this article
Gschwandtner, M., Uhl, A. & Wild, P. Transmission Error and Compression Robustness of 2D Chaotic Map Image Encryption Schemes. EURASIP J. on Info. Security 2007, 048179 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1155/2007/48179
- Encryption Scheme
- Error Type
- Security Requirement
- Data Security
- Block Cipher