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Table 1 Comparison of the document issuing (SC1) and identity verification (SC2) scenarios

From: Potential advantages and limitations of using information fusion in media forensics—a discussion on the example of detecting face morphing attacks


Document issuing (SC1)

Identity verification (SC2)

Attack’s target

Officer at the document issuing authority

Identity verification system

Time constraints

Up to several minutes

Few seconds (< 2 s)

Face image format

- Low-size printed document image

- High-resolution digital image from a certified photo-kiosk

- Low-resolution compressed digital document image

- Low-size re-printed document image partially occluded by watermarks

Currently used morphing detection mechanisms

- Naked eye, comparison to the person in front of the desk

- No explicit mechanisms

- AFR systems may be set to rejecting at low similarity

Proposed morphing detection mechanisms

- Primarily non-reference (blind) detection

- Could be extended by reference-based detection

- Reference-based detection

- Demorphing

- Could be extended by non-reference (blind) detection