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Table 1 Comparison of the document issuing (SC1) and identity verification (SC2) scenarios

From: Potential advantages and limitations of using information fusion in media forensics—a discussion on the example of detecting face morphing attacks

  Document issuing (SC1) Identity verification (SC2)
Attack’s target Officer at the document issuing authority Identity verification system
Time constraints Up to several minutes Few seconds (< 2 s)
Face image format - Low-size printed document image
- High-resolution digital image from a certified photo-kiosk
- Low-resolution compressed digital document image
- Low-size re-printed document image partially occluded by watermarks
Currently used morphing detection mechanisms - Naked eye, comparison to the person in front of the desk - No explicit mechanisms
- AFR systems may be set to rejecting at low similarity
Proposed morphing detection mechanisms - Primarily non-reference (blind) detection
- Could be extended by reference-based detection
- Reference-based detection
- Demorphing
- Could be extended by non-reference (blind) detection