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Table 1 Examples of isolation properties

From: Towards constructive approach to end-to-end slice isolation in 5G networks

Isolation property
Used tunneling for traffic
Setting proper cryptographic primitives’ (encryption, hashing,
signing, etc.) parameters
Scalability (quantity of resources in O(n) notation)
Used user space virtualization technique (e.g., Docker [97] based
on containers for applications)
Used network element virtualization technique (e.g., Kernel-based Virtual
Machines [98] for virtual e-NodeB)
Mandatory access control
Inter-process communication (IPC)
Spectrum sharing techniques (e.g., TDMA, FDMA, OFDMA, CDMA - Time/
Frequency/Orthogonal Frequency/Code Division Multiple Access)
Location based isolation techniques (e.g., beamforming)
Physical elements separation (e.g., dedicated antennas)
Used layer 2 multiple access techniques and protocols with traffic
isolation (e.g., CSMA/CA—carrier sense multiple access with
collision avoidance)
Type of used band– licensed, partially licensed, unlicensed [99]
Hardware isolation method (e.g., separate e-NodeB hardware)
Sharing common link
Proper channel assignment for nodes in shared cell
Used VLAN tagging
Using SVIs (switched virtual interfaces)
Each VRF traffic is encapsulated inside a tunnel