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  • Research Article
  • Open Access

Hierarchical Spread Spectrum Fingerprinting Scheme Based on the CDMA Technique

EURASIP Journal on Information Security20112011:502782

  • Received: 10 March 2010
  • Accepted: 20 January 2011
  • Published:


Digital fingerprinting is a method to insert user's own ID into digital contents in order to identify illegal users who distribute unauthorized copies. One of the serious problems in a fingerprinting system is the collusion attack such that several users combine their copies of the same content to modify/delete the embedded fingerprints. In this paper, we propose a collusion-resistant fingerprinting scheme based on the CDMA technique. Our fingerprint sequences are orthogonal sequences of DCT basic vectors modulated by PN sequence. In order to increase the number of users, a hierarchical structure is produced by assigning a pair of the fingerprint sequences to a user. Under the assumption that the frequency components of detected sequences modulated by PN sequence follow Gaussian distribution, the design of thresholds and the weighting of parameters are studied to improve the performance. The robustness against collusion attack and the computational costs required for the detection are estimated in our simulation.


  • Basic Vector
  • Full Article
  • Data Security
  • Spread Spectrum
  • Digital Content

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Authors’ Affiliations

Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe Hyogo, 657-8501, Japan


© Minoru Kuribayashi. 2011

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.