Open Access

Experimental Assessment of the Reliability for Watermarking and Fingerprinting Schemes

EURASIP Journal on Information Security20082008:414962

Received: 19 August 2008

Accepted: 27 November 2008

Published: 24 December 2008


We introduce the concept of reliability in watermarking as the ability of assessing that a probability of false alarm is very low and below a given significance level. We propose an iterative and self-adapting algorithm which estimates very low probabilities of error. It performs much quicker and more accurately than a classical Monte Carlo estimator. The article finishes with applications to zero-bit watermarking (probability of false alarm, error exponent), and to probabilistic fingerprinting codes (probability of wrongly accusing a given user, code length estimation).


False AlarmFull ArticleData SecurityMonte Carlo EstimatorCode Length

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Authors’ Affiliations

TraitemEnt, Modélisation d'Images & CommunicationS (TEMICS), Institut Rennes - Bretagne Atlantique Research Center (INRIA), Rennes Cedex, France


© Frédéric Cérou et al. 2008

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.