Open Access

Format-Compliant JPEG2000 Encryption in JPSEC: Security, Applicability, and the Impact of Compression Parameters

EURASIP Journal on Information Security20082007:094565

DOI: 10.1155/2007/94565

Received: 30 March 2007

Accepted: 22 October 2007

Published: 13 February 2008

Abstract

JPEG2000 encryption has become a widely discussed topic and quite a number of contributions have been made. However, little is known about JPEG2000 compression parameters and their influence on the security and performance of format, compliant encryption schemes. In this work, a thorough analysis of this topic is presented with a focus on format-compliant packet body encryption as sketched in the FCD 15444-8 (JPSEC). A proof for the reversibility of JPSEC format-compliant packet body encryption is given. As format-compliant packet body encryption preserves the JPEG2000 headers, which severely compromises the security, we additionally discuss packet header encryption with a special focus on format compliance and the influence of compression parameters on these schemes.

[12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031]

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Department of Computer Sciences, Salzburg University

References

  1. Furht B, Kirovski D (Eds): Multimedia Security Handbook. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA; 2005.Google Scholar
  2. Uhl A, Pommer A: Image and Video Encryption. From Digital Rights Management to Secured Personal Communication, Advances in Information Security. Volume 15. Springer, New York, NY, USA; 2005.Google Scholar
  3. Engel D, Uhl A: Parameterized biorthogonal wavelet lifting for lightweight JPEG2000 transparent encryption. Proceedings of the ACM Multimedia and Security Workshop, (MM-SEC '05), August 2005, New York, NY, USA 63-70.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  4. Engel D, Uhl A: Secret wavelet packet decompositions for JPEG2000 lightweight encryption. Proceedings of the 31st International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP '06), May 2006, Toulouse, France 5: 465-468.Google Scholar
  5. Norcen R, Uhl A: Performance analysis of block-based permutations in securing JPEG2000 and SPIHT compression. In Prooceedings of the Visual Communications and Image Processing 2005 (VCIP '05), July 2005, Beijing, China, Proceedings of SPIE Edited by: Li S, Pereira F, Shum H-Y, Tescher AG. 5960: 944-952.Google Scholar
  6. ISO/IEC 15444-8 : Final Committee Draft. Information Technology—JPEG2000 image coding system, part 8: secure JPEG2000. 2004.Google Scholar
  7. ISO/IEC 15444-8 : Information technology—JPEG2000 image coding system, part 8: secure JPEG2000. 2007.Google Scholar
  8. Taubman D, Marcellin MW: JPEG2000—Image Compression Fundamentals, Standards and Practice. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands; 2002.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  9. ISO/IEC 15444-1 : Information technology—JPEG2000 image coding system, part 1: core coding system. 2000.Google Scholar
  10. ISO/IEC 15444-4 : Information technology—JPEG2000 image coding system, part 4: conformance testing. 2004.Google Scholar
  11. Mao Y, Wu M: Security evaluation for communication-friendly encryption of multimedia. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP '04), October 2004, Singapore 1: 569-572.Google Scholar
  12. Dufaux F, Wee S, Apostolopoulos J, Ebrahimi T: JPSEC for secure imaging in JPEG2000. In Applications of Digital Image Processing XXVII, August 2004, Proceedings of SPIE Edited by: Tescher IAG. 5558: 319-330.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  13. Apostolopoulos J, Dufaux F, Wee S, Ebrahimi T, Sun Q, Zhang Z: The emerging JPEG2000 security (JPSEC) standard. Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS '06), May 2006Google Scholar
  14. ISO/IEC 15444-1 : Final Committee Draft, Information Technology—JPEG2000 image coding system, part 1: core coding system. 2000.Google Scholar
  15. Grosbois R, Gerbelot P, Ebrahimi T: Authentication and access control in the JPEG2000 compressed domain. In Proocedings of the Applications of Digital Image Processing XXIV, July 2001, San Diego, Calif, USA, Proceedings of SPIE Edited by: Tescher AG. 4472: 95-104.Google Scholar
  16. Norcen R, Uhl A: Selective encryption of the JPEG2000 bitstream. In Proceedings of the Communications and Multimedia Security of Lecture Notes on Computer Science, (CMS '03), October 2003, Turin, Italy, Proceedings of the IFIP TC6/TC11 6th Joint Working Conference on Communications and Multimedia Security Edited by: Lioy A, Mazzocchi D. 2828: 194-204.Google Scholar
  17. Dufaux F, Ebrahimi T: Securing JPEG2000 compressed images. In Proocedings of the Applications of Digital Image Processing XXVI, November 2003, Prooceedings of SPIE Edited by: Tescher IAG. 5203: 397-406.Google Scholar
  18. Kiya H, Imaizumi D, Watanabe O: Partial-scrambling of images encoded using JPEG2000 without generating marker codes. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP '03), September 2003, Barcelona, Spain 3: 205-208.Google Scholar
  19. Wu M, Mao V: Communication-friendly encryption of multimedia. Proceedings of the IEEE Multimedia Signal Processing Workshop (MMSP '02), December 2002, St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, USAGoogle Scholar
  20. Conan V, Sadourny Y, Thomann S: Symmetric block cipher based protection: Contribution to JPSEC. 2003.ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1 N 277Google Scholar
  21. Wu H, Ma D: Efficient and secure encryption schemes for JPEG2000. Proceedings of the 2004 International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP '04), May 2004 5: 869-872.Google Scholar
  22. Wu Y, Deng RH: Compliant encryption of JPEG2000 codestreams. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP '04), October 2004, Singapore 2: 3439-3442.Google Scholar
  23. Fang J, Sun J: Compliant encryption scheme for JPEG2000 image code streams. Journal of Electronic Imaging 2006, 15(4):4 pages.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  24. Grangetto M, Magli E, Olmo G: Multimedia selective encryption by means of randomized arithmetic coding. IEEE Transactions on Multimedia 2006, 8(5):905-917.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  25. Stütz T, Uhl A: On format-compliant iterative encryption of JPEG2000. Proceedings of the 8th IEEE International Symposium on Multimedia (ISM '06), 2006, Los Alamitos, Calif, USA 985-990.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  26. Digital Cinema Initiatives & LLC (DCI) : Digital cinema system specification v1.1. 2007http://www.dcimovies.com/DCI_DCinema_System_Spec_v1_1.pdfhttp://www.dcimovies.com/DCI_DCinema_System_Spec_v1_1.pdfGoogle Scholar
  27. Liu C, Mandal M: Fast image indexing based on JPEG2000 packet header. Proceedings of the 2001 ACM Workshops on Multimedia: Multimedia Information Retrieval, October 2001, New York, NY, USA, ACM Press 46-49.Google Scholar
  28. Descampe A, Vandergheynst P, De Vleeschouwer C, Macq B: Coarse-to-fine textures retrieval in the JPEG 2000 compressed domain for fast browsing of large image databases. In Proceedings of the Multimedia Content Representation, Classification and Security (MRCS '06), Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Volume 4105. Edited by: Günsel IB, Jain AK, Tekalp AM, Sankur B. Springer, New York, NY, USA; 2006:282-289. 10.1007/11848035_38View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  29. Tabesh A, Bilgin A, Krishnan K, Marcellin MW: JPEG2000 and motion JPEG2000 content analysis using codestream length information. Proceedings of the Data Compression Conference (DCC '05), March 2005 329-337.Google Scholar
  30. Macq BM, Quisquater J: Cryptology for digital TV broadcasting. Proceedings of the IEEE 1995, 83(6):944-957. 10.1109/5.387094View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  31. Uhl A, Obermair Ch: Transparent encryption of JPEG2000 bitstreams. In Proceedings of the EC-SIP-M 2005 (5th EURASIP Conference focused on Speech and Image Processing, Multimedia Communications and Services), 2005, Smolenice, Slovak Republic Edited by: Podhradsky Pet al.. 322-327.Google Scholar

Copyright

© Dominik Engel et al. 2007

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.